New leader whose June arrival in office was shaken by big protests is raising social spending, targeting close-to-balanced budget and resisting further bank rescues.
This "is about surveillance, not security" says IT executive, urging browser-makers such as Mozilla and Google to intervene. Move comes following big anti-regime protests during election.
Neighbouring Uzbekistan produced six times more cars than Kazakhstan in 2018 — but that could change with the launch of a new $1.1bn Chinese-Kazakh joint venture.
Governments of Central and Southeast Europe have already secured most of the funding they need for this year, but with more obligations maturing in 2020 they are expected to return to the markets on a large scale next year
Thanks to gradual economic recovery in 2017-2018, foreign investor interest in Kazakhstan has been on the rise.